Egyptian Air Defense

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Commander SL long-range tactical air survey and early warning radar operating in the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

The Commander SL is British-made and produced by BAE Systems for Defense Industries.

It is a three-dimensional radar that operates on the S-Band (including the E/F-Band) that performs aerial survey tasks and identifies the enemy and friend. It has a tremendous ability to resist all means of electronic jamming (ECCM) and is capable of detecting future air threats such as UAV drones, cruise missiles, and munitions. Long Range Stand-off Weapons, especially at low altitudes. It also has the technology of detecting the height from a single pulse in the vertical direction, Phased mono-pulse height measurement, meaning that it can detect the height of the target from the first time without the need for confirmation. This is in addition to the ability to identify the enemy and friend (IFF) as a secondary scanning radar (SSR) Secondary Surveillance Radar, as the main radar’s mission is limited only to detecting air targets, but the secondary radar relies on the electronic transponder response devices to determine the identity of the aircraft itself.

The radar also features air-cooled TRIMS Solid-State Transmit Receive Integrated Modules installed behind the radar antennas as a highly reliable source of RF Radio Frequency with built-in redundancy.

The radar has tremendous operating reliability, as the average time between critical failures (MTBCF Mean Time Between Critical Failures) is about 1,500 hours of continuous operation with an operational readiness of 99%, and the average time required for maintenance (MTTR Meat Time To Repair) is only about 30 minutes, and low time requirements for maintenance, Finally, there is a built-in system for automatically identifying faults known as BITE.

The radar has a horizontal scanning range of up to 470 km and a detection ceiling of up to 30 km with a 20 degree elevation coverage angle and an electronic beam tilt rate of -2 degrees ~ +5.8 degrees.

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“Chinese-Egyptian” radar device, model (YLC-6M)

- It is basically a radar device produced by the Chinese international company (NRIET), and “Egypt” contracted for it and obtained a license to produce it at the “Banha Electronic Industries Company (KATRON)” affiliated with the “Ministry of Military Production” and also contracted to develop it locally..
- It works in the “centimeter” frequency range in the frequency range of (2.7-3) G/Hz..
1 - It is a lightweight two-dimensional (2D) radar device used to detect low and very low aerial targets. This radar uses what is known as “solid state technology” in all its components..
2 - It works in the frequency band (S-BAND)...
3 - “Frequency space width” is (130) M/Hz..
4 - The maximum detection range is (200) km..
5 - The “side-lobe level of the antenna” or (SIDE-LOBE) reaches (300) dB..
6 - The transmitted power of the antenna is (18) kilowatts..
7 – “Vertical/circular” polarization..
8 - The width of the transmitted pulse is (0.8) microseconds for the “narrow” pulse and (100) microseconds for the “wide” pulse..
9 – USAGE:

A - The station is used for the purposes of detecting and warning air targets at low and medium altitudes.
B - Directing the fighters..
C - The station is also used for filling gaps or (GAB FILLING)...
10 - Detection capabilities (COVERAGE):
A - The detection range for a radar cross-sectional area (RCS) target is (2) meters/square with a detection probability of (80)% is (150) km..
B - Maximum height (10) km..
C – Elevation angle (40) degrees..
D - Accuracy of coordinate measurement:

(1) In the range (150) meters..
(2) At an angle of (1.5) degrees..
E - The ability to separate goals:

(1) In the range (150) meters..
(2) At an angle of (1.5) degrees..
11 – Antenna rotation speed (6, 12) revolutions/minute..
12 - Number of automated traffic lines (250)...
13 - Disassembly time (6) minutes and installation time (8) minutes..
14 - The operating time is only (1) minute.

15 – Capabilities to resist disability (ECCM CAPABILITY):
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A - Frequency agility, each “pulse/group” of pulses (30) frequencies..
B - Choose the frequency that has the least impact on obstruction.
D - A digital system for showing moving targets, or (DMTI)...
E - The radar contains a “digital pulse compression system” or (DPCT)...
16 - The YLC-6M radar uses (MTD PROCESSOR) technology to improve tactical performance, whether in the “military/civilian” field, as there is a version of it used in “regulating the movement of civil aircraft” or (ATC), but it is a “fixed” or non-moving version. It is called (YLC-6 ATC)..
17 - During practical tests on the radar (YLC-6M), it “detected/tracked” the attack helicopter (AH-64 APACHE) from a distance of more than (+30) km.,
18 - The YLC-6M radar contains an “automatic north finder” system, or what is called (AUTOMATIC NORTH FINDIN), via GPS.
19 - The radar (YLC-6M) is equipped with an “automatic fault detection” system (BITE)

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JY-9 radar

It is a Chinese-made three-dimensional radar that works for the Egyptian Air Defense Forces.

- Specialized in detecting aerial targets at low altitudes.

The radar can operate in an environment full of hostile electronic interference.

- He can fill the gaps and monitor airports and coastal defense.

- The duration of setting up or disassembling the radar is within 20 minutes with a crew of four people.

Specifications:

Works on S band
Antenna: dual beam
Antenna rotation capacity: 6: 12 revolutions per minute
Beam aperture: 15°, 18° (vertical)
Power output: 200 kW (peak)
Coverage: 360° (azimuth), 0 - 40° (elevation)
Range: 150 km
Altitude: 10 km
Detection accuracy: 80 meters range; 0.3 degree azimuth
Tracking capacity: 200 air targets

Pictures of radar in Egypt from inside the radome. They are used to protect the radar from weather factors and hide the radar so that it cannot be recognized.

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Russian-made Protivnik-GE amplified warning radar in service with the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

It is a three-dimensional radar that automatically provides the ability to survey long-range air, monitor and track strategic and combat aircraft, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, drones, and even targets at low subsonic speeds at various altitudes. The radar can also classify air targets according to their type, identify active interference, and also provide aviation Al-Siddiq provides information and various navigational data to direct air support and counter-air defense operations. It possesses Phased Array-Antenna technology and operates on the L band wavelength. .

The radar has an aerial scanning range of up to 480 km and an altitude of up to 200 km. The radar can monitor 150 air targets simultaneously

The radar can work automatically, and the radar can detect faults automatically

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Chinese-made JYL-1 radar used by the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

JYL-1 is a long-range S band (IEEE designation) or E/F band (NATO designation) 3D air surveillance radar. It might be used as either an asset for air traffic control and management purposes

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Source:
Multiple sources

The SC

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Two snapshots containing a lot of video from the main phase of the tactical tactical command centers project "Jasser 113" for air defense units to deal with a comprehensive hostile air attack in cooperation with the air forces and electronic warfare, in the presence of the Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defense and Military Production.

Looking at the two pictures, we will find training for a comprehensive and highly focused Zionist attack on Sinai and the West Bank of the Suez Canal from all directions, east, northeast, north, and southeast. The matter did not stop there; Rather - as is clear from the models and maps - the operations plan includes the worst and harshest possible conditions, which is the advance of the Zionist forces to the eastern bank of the canal, and how they will be dealt with and confronted with the existing capabilities available to the armed forces from the air defense means deployed and stationed west of the canal and north, east and northeast. Delta, with the assistance of the Air Force and the Electronic Warfare Force.

* The training plan included the types of armament and ammunition that the Zionist forces would use in the attack, and according to what we were able to identify and take from the pictures and marked with white squares, it included:

- The mobile tactical command and control center “Mashov”, which is a mobile center dedicated to directing and managing air operations of the Zionist army aviation and is known as “C4” or “Command, Control, Communications & Computers”.

- Thousand-35, Thousand-16 Sufa, and Thousand-15 Raam fighter jets attack north and northeast from the Mediterranean Sea and east and southeast from above Sinai.

- Apache attack helicopters carry out the attack under air cover from combat aircraft over Sinai.

- American AGM-88C anti-radar missiles to suppress air defenses by eliminating the guidance radars of air defense means, with a range of up to 110 km.

- American Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), which are smart bombs guided by inertia and INS/GPS satellites, with a range of 24-27 km.

- GBU-15 television or thermally guided bombs, which contain a 907 kg Mk84 bomb or a BLU-109 bunker-busting bomb with a range of up to 28 km. There is a version of the EGBU-15 that contains an additional inertial navigation system and INS/GPS satellites to increase accuracy.

AGM-130 missiles, which are GBU-15 bombs with a rocket propulsion engine added to increase their range to 75 km, operate on F-15 Ra’em and F-15 Strike Eagle fighters and are divided into the following versions:

#The AGM-130A missile contains a 907 kg Mk84 bomb, a system with a rocket propulsion engine and a thermal or television guidance system.

#The AGM-130C missile contains a BLU-109 bunker-busting bomb with a rocket propulsion engine and a thermal or television guidance system.

- "AGM-142 Popeye" Zionist mobile missiles launched from the air from outside the range of air defenses and are divided into the following versions:

# The Popeye II Have Lite TV missile, which is guided by inertia and INS/GPS satellite, with a final guidance system with a television camera, has a range of up to 150 km, and its warhead weighs 340 kg. It operates on Turkish and South Korean F-16 Sufa and F-16 fighters.

#The Popeye II Have Lite IIR missile, which is guided by inertia and INS/GPS satellite, with a final guidance system with a thermal camera, has a range of up to 150 km, and its warhead weighs 340 kg. It operates on Turkish and South Korean F-16 Sufa and F-16 fighters.

#Popeye Turbo ALCM heavy missile with a range of 320 km, works on F-15 Ra'am fighters and can carry a tactical nuclear warhead (from which the Popeye Turbo SLCM version with a range of 1,500 absolute range is derived from Dolphin submarines).

# Spice 2000 bombs, which are Mk84 bombs weighing 907 kg, with the addition of the guidance package for the Pop-I missile, which consists of an inertial navigation system and a GPS/INS satellite with final television or thermal guidance, and its range reaches 60 km if launched from high altitudes at high speeds. Ultrasonic The traditional warhead can be replaced with a bunker-piercing warhead.

# Spice 1000 bombs, which are MK83 bombs weighing 450 kg, with the addition of the guidance package for the Pop-I missile, which consists of an inertial navigation system and a GPS/INS satellite with final television or thermal guidance, and its range reaches 100 km if launched from high altitudes at high speeds. Ultrasonic The traditional warhead can be replaced with a bunker-piercing warhead.

#Spice 250 bombs, which are Mk81 bombs weighing 113 kg, have an added guidance package for the Pop-I missile, which consists of an inertial navigation system and a GPS/INS satellite with final television or thermal guidance, and its range reaches 100 km if launched from high altitudes at high speeds. Ultrasonic The traditional warhead can be replaced with a bunker-piercing warhead.

* As we mentioned above, we only mentioned what we were able to capture from the pictures, but what concerns us here is the meaning of this training, which confirms, without room for doubt, that the first enemy of the Egyptian army is the Zionist army, and it will remain so, no matter how different the circumstances and Situations, and it confirms the knowledge and study of the armed forces for all capabilities. And the Israeli army’s equipment, especially smart munitions and mobile missiles fired from long ranges - which is the longest arm of the Zionist aviation - and methods and how to deal with them and confront them technically and tactically through air defense and electronic warfare. This is the best and strongest response to the fools and skeptics who falsely claim that the doctrine of the Egyptian army has changed or changed and that the Zionist entity is not an enemy or is no longer the enemy as it was before.

Here a question will come to the minds of many: Where are our forces in Sinai? Where are our intercepting air forces over Sinai?

Quite simply, the answer to the question is that operational plans, are not limited only to confronting a hostile attack on the border or carrying out an attack within the borders and territory of the enemy, but rather they are much broader and more comprehensive, including scenarios of losing territory or losing defenses or military bases on the front lines as a result of a loophole. Or the quantitative and qualitative superiority of the enemy, and how to deal with this superiority or this loophole, and how to stop the advance of the enemy forces and prevent them from controlling more land, and then how to launch a counterattack and break the advance of the enemy forces and open a gap in its front lines and advance deep inside the lands it controlled. Then start regaining control over it gradually and in stages.

The worst assumptions must be made and dealt with, and this is the ABC of operational plans in war, and this is one of the simplest lessons learned from 67, 73, and 82 (the battle of the Bekaa Valley between Zionist aviation and Syrian aviation and air defense, which ended in a complete Zionist victory thanks to the use of electronic warfare to confuse Syrian aviation and air defense. Completely (81) Operation Opera and the bombing of the Iraqi Tammuz nuclear reactor by Zionist aircraft, relying on the element of surprise and flying at a very low altitude to avoid detection by radars (91) The Gulf War and coalition airstrikes on Iraqi air defense and the use of advanced electronic warfare methods (99) The Kosovo War and NATO air clashes With the Serbian air defense and the Serbs’ use of effective tactics to mislead anti-radar missiles) and 2007 (Operation Al-Bustan, bombing the Syrian nuclear reactor in Deir ez-Zor, and using electronic warfare to confuse the Syrian air defense). Zionist and Western aviation in general always relies on means of electronic warfare to confuse, deceive, and mislead, and highly secure means of command and control to ensure integration, communication, connectivity, and continuous coordination, while using ultra-low-flying tactics to avoid being detected by radars, and relying on high-precision smart munitions and mobile missiles launched from long ranges. This is what the Egyptian air defense and aviation must deal with in any potential future confrontations.
 

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Crotale short-range air defense system operating in the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

The "Crotale" or rattlesnake (a type of venomous snake that has a hollow, heat-sensing organ located between the eye and the nose on both sides of the face) is a French short-range, self-propelled, air defense system that combats approaching air threats and aircraft at low altitudes. It was developed in It originated in the mid-sixties as a joint program between the French company "Thomson CSF" (now known as "Thales") and South Africa to meet the needs of the South African Armed Forces. Pretoria provided 85% of the funding value for the program, and Paris provided the remaining 15%, and it entered active service. 1971.

The French army was so impressed with the system's performance that it contracted it for its naval and air forces to protect air bases, in addition to installing it on various naval vessels.

The system was exported to: South Africa (joint production) - Egypt (joint production licence) - UAE - Bahrain - Kuwait - Oman - Iraq - Libya - Morocco - Saudi Arabia (an upgraded version with Saudi funding called “Shaheen” mounted on the AMX tank chassis). -30) - Pakistan - China (local production license under the name “HQ-7”) - Taiwan - Thailand - South Korea (local production license under the name “K-SAM”) - Finland - Spain - Netherlands - Greece.

Picture of the Chinese version HQ-7 land and sea:

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Picture of the South Korean version K-SAM:

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A picture of the Saudi version Shaheen:

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A picture of the French naval version Crotale Navale:

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During 1976, as a result of the increasing cooling in Egyptian-Soviet relations, Cairo requested a modified version of the Crotale system to meet the needs of the Egyptian Air Defense Forces.

Egyptian military engineers and technicians integrated 20 modifications to the basic “R.440” missile and to the Crotale system itself, resulting in a new version that was originally named “Arab-Crotale” and bore the designation “TSE-5100.”

The French side agreed to integrate these controls into all production processes of the system and missiles. He also granted Egypt a co-production contract and healthy financial compensation, as a reward for its research efforts in modifying and developing the Crotal system.

The modifications resulted in increased speed, range, and improved maneuverability of the missiles, giving the new version the name “R.460.” In the period "1981 - 1983", the "Thomson" company (currently Thales) built its new systems on the basis of these modifications, and also integrated them into the version requested by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under the name "Shahine", which differed in that it was a crawler mounted on the chassis of AMX tanks. -30 instead of wheeled vehicles, equipped with 6 missiles instead of 4 in the basic version.

In 1988, Thomson awarded the Arab Organization for Industrialization a contract to produce 320 missile launcher containers for the Saudi “Shaheen” air defense system, which is derived from the Crotal system.

The battery consists of an Acquisition and Co-ordination Unit (ACU) radar vehicle and two missile launchers.

The radar and coordination vehicle is connected to the launching vehicles either by a cable allowing communication up to 800 meters or wirelessly by a radio data link.

The coordination and target acquisition vehicle contains an aerial survey, identification and target identification radar, with a range of 20 km against aircraft and 8 km against helicopters, and a maximum height of 5 km. It contains an enemy and friend identification system (IFF), with an ability to resist obstruction and Electronic Counter-Countermeasures ECCM, and the computer analyzes and processes the data. received from the radar and then transmitted via the radio data link to the missile launching vehicles.

The missile launching vehicle contains the following:

1) Missile tracking and guidance radar. It can detect helicopters and fighter planes flying at speeds of up to Mach 2 from a distance of 18 km. It can track 8 targets together and direct two missiles simultaneously.

2) A television camera for daytime monitoring that can monitor targets from a distance of 15 km in ideal conditions.

3) A thermal imaging camera for night monitoring that can detect targets from a distance of 19 km in ideal conditions.

4) An infrared thermal focusing system to narrow the search range and focus it on the target to calculate missiles

The reaction speed from the moment the target is detected until the missiles are launched is about 6 seconds.

- Missiles:

After monitoring and tracking targets using radar, television and thermal cameras, the missiles are launched and directed using the Command Guidance system through a digital radio data link.

The missile has a warhead weighing 14 kg with a highly destructive, concentrated fragmentation charge, with an infrared proximity detonation detonator that activates its detonation when it senses the proximity of the target from a distance of 350 metres. There is another reserve detonator to detonate the missile when it meets the target. The fragmentation speed when detonating reaches 2300 metres/ Its lethal effect extends within a radius of 8 metres.

The missiles can take on fighter planes, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles.

There are 3 types of missiles that have been developed as follows:

1) The R.440 missile: It is the original missile of the Crotal system. It is 2.94 meters long, weighs 80 kg, has a speed of Mach 2.3, has a range of 8.5 km, a maximum height of 4.5 km, and a maximum ability to maneuver over a distance of 8 km is 15 G.

2) The R.460 missile: It is the version that was developed after the Egyptian modifications to the Crotal system. Its length is 3 meters, its weight is 105 kg, its speed is Mach 2.5, its range reaches 14 km, its maximum height is 4.5 km, and its maximum ability to maneuver over a distance of 8 km is 20 G.

3) The VT-1 missile: It is the latest version and operates on the Crotale NG or Next Generation system, and its production began in 1990. Its length is 2.29 meters, its weight is 75 kg, its speed is 3.5 km, its range reaches 11 km, its maximum height is 6 km, and its maximum ability to maneuver over a distance. 8 How much is 35 g.

Thales has developed a new version of the Crotale system, called the Crotale Mk.3, which uses the VT-1 missile but features the new Shikra three-dimensional radar derived from the SMART-S Mk2 aerial survey radar operating on board naval vessels, which has allowed the missile's guidance range to be increased to The distance is 16 km instead of 11 km, and the maximum altitude is 9 km instead of 6 km.

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The Pechora-2M system in operation with the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

The Egyptian Air Defense Forces have more than 70 batteries of this system

The S-125-2M Pechora-2M surface-to-air missile system is designed to provide air defense of military, administrative and industrial facilities against aircraft, helicopters and low-flying cruise missiles, including explosive ones, simple and high-environmental electronic countermeasures.

Upgrading efforts resulted in the following:

Better shooting performance through larger engagement area and higher target kill probability due to use of upgraded 5V27D (5V27DE) SAM:
- Enhancing the survivability of the SAM system through the use of new electronic and electro-optical devices, counter-electronic equipment, and shorter internal transmission cables
- Improving the tactical mobility of the SAM system by mounting its main assets on a wheeled chassis equipped with independent power supply and satellite navigation equipment and also due to a significant reduction in emplacement/displacement time
- High operating reliability and renewal through the use of modern circuit components in most equipment.
- Improve operational performance by monitoring automation status and reducing maintenance time;
- Better opportunities for spare parts supply for a long period of time.

formation

The main assets of the Pechora-2M include another missile guidance radar antenna, a control truck and up to eight self-propelled launchers. Targets for engagement are selected by Pechora-2M according to data coming from the external target acquisition radar. The missiles are controlled in flight by radio command method.

For better survivability of the Pechora-2M when the enemy uses anti-radar missiles, conversion transmitters are used, which are part of a specially developed ISM system.

Main characteristics
Target engagement height, km0.02-20
Maximum reaction range, km:
At an altitude of 0.5 km 22
At an altitude of 5-20 km to 32
Target scope of participation, how much
Target with RSS = 2m² without distortion 102
Target in active noise jamming environments with a maximum total power of 2000 W/MHz against the background of the antenna radiation pattern (jamming station at distance 100 km) 44,5
Automatic target tracking in day and night timeprovided
Probability of diversion of anti-radar missiles by EKM system (two-way attack) 0.96 to 0.98
Place/time of homelessness, Minot over 25
Mean time until newly installed equipment fails, is less than 2000

It is the modern vehicle-borne version of the SAM-3 system and serves as an escort for ground forces.

The system is equipped with electro-optical systems for monitoring, tracking and identifying targets in various weather conditions.

- KRTZ-125/2M electronic warfare system for active jamming against anti-radar guided missiles. This system succeeded in a previous experiment in repelling an anti-radar missile to a distance of 400 meters from its target.

The mobile version contains an electro-optical remote control system for targeting and tracking when the radar is not operating to avoid detection or in the event of hostile interference.

The system is accompanied by Low Blow radar.

The missiles for the mobile version contain the same equipment as the central version, including engines, warheads, and guidance and tracking systems.

Egypt purchased 70 batteries of this type, and they are being received in batches that began in 2009 and end in 2012.

Each battery contains 4 missile launchers, with two missiles on each vehicle carrying the missile launcher. This means that Egypt has more than 280 vehicles launching Pechora-2M missiles, and this is a very large number.

*Notes: Pechora-2M systems can operate in a complete environment of interference without being affected by it because they contain laser, thermal, and optical monitoring, aiming, and firing systems that are alternatives to radar.

*Pechora-2M systems can confront anti-radar and beam-riding missiles, in addition to cruise missiles and flying targets with a stealth signature.

*The old version of SAM-3 participated in the Vietnam War and shot down 4,000 American aircraft of various types, without any exaggeration. Also, during NATO’s bombing of Serbia in 1999, a missile from this system succeeded in shooting down the American F-117 stealth aircraft, which was a scandal at that time.

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The Air Defense Forces carry out live ammunition shooting as part of the “Badr 2014” strategic maneuver activities.

 

The SC

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Avenger system in operation with the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

The American-made Avenger system consists of a mobile tower mounted on Humvee multi-mission vehicles and contains:

- Two quad launchers equipped with 8 short-range FIM-92 Stinger missiles with a seeker with a dual-color inspection system with Infrared IR and Ultraviolet UV detectors. The infrared seeker tracks the hot exhaust coming from the target’s engine, while the seeker Ultraviolet radiation tracks thermal radiation coming from the target. The missile has a range of 8 km, a height of 3.5-3.8 km, and a maximum speed of 2,700 km/h. It can deal with various air threats, including cruise missiles, drones, fighter planes, and helicopters.

- 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, model FN M3P (derived from the famous M2 Browning machine gun), with an automatic system for remote control from the driver’s cabin of the Humvee or by a firing squadron inside the mobile turret, and its rate of fire reaches 1,200 rounds/minute.

- The monitoring and targeting system, which consists of an infrared monitoring system, FLIR Forward Looking Infrared, a laser rangefinder system, LRF Laser Range Finder, a video system for automatic tracking, AVT Automatic Video Tracker, and an optical system for the firing squad, equipped with sensors that activate the missile’s thermal seeker, as well as command and unlock indicators. Launch containers and finally a network system that confirms that the missile has captured the target, in addition to the IFF system.

* The detection, targeting and tracking systems are controlled by a control computer called ACE AvengerControl Electronics located in the shooting cockpit of the mobile tower, and the entire system can be controlled remotely from a distance of up to 50 metres.

* The system can launch up to 4 missiles in succession at the target, and is distinguished by its ability to engage while moving at a maximum speed of 35 km/s.

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Tor-M2 air defense system operating in the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

The Tor M2 is a short-range system that combats fighters, helicopters, cruise missiles, laser-guided bombs, glide bombs, and drones. Its hit rate is 95% in the event of a single missile launch. It is considered one of the best short-range air defenses in the world.

The system’s radar detection range is 32 km and it can monitor and identify 48 air targets at the same time and can fire at 4 targets at the same time.

The radar works in a loop system, meaning it can share information about the weather situation with another vehicle within a range of 64 km

Each battery consists of 4 vehicles carrying missile launchers, with a number of 8: 16 missiles per vehicle, and is accompanied by a vehicle equipped with a fire monitoring, control and control system.

The missiles are guided by radar waves and have a range of 15 km and a height of 10 km. The speed of the missiles reaches 3000 km/hour.

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Buk-M2E medium-range air defense system operating in the Egyptian Air Defense Forces

The Buk M2E is the export version of the Russian medium-range air defense system Buk-M2 or SA-17 Grizzly, which was developed from the Buk-M1-2 system, as its development began in 1988 and officially entered service in 2008 with the Russian army, while the Buk-M1 system -2 It entered service in 1998. This system is produced by Almaz Antey, a leader in the field of air defense systems of various types.

The system was exported to Egypt, Syria, Algeria, Armenia, Belarus and Venezuela.

The Buk-M2 system is considered the best medium-range air defense system in the world until the emergence of the newer Buk-M3 system, which began entering service at the end of 2016 with the Russian Air Defense Forces, and Egypt expressed its desire to obtain it.

The Buk-M2E system can address all of the following:

- Highly maneuverable fighters.

- Helicopters.

- Mobile missiles.

- Air-launched missiles.

- Tactical ballistic missiles (launched from a maximum distance of 200-300 km)

- High-precision aerial munitions.

- Land vehicles and surface ships.

The system is distinguished by its ability to operate in the most difficult and harsh environmental conditions, with temperatures reaching +50° or -50° and a humidity rate of up to 98%, as the cockpits for cockpits and work for individuals contain air conditioning systems and heating systems.

* Main battery components:

- 9S510E tracked command and control vehicle.

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- 9S18M1-3E self-propelled tracked radar system for aerial scanning, detection and tracking of targets.

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- 9A317E tracked missile launcher vehicle carrying 4 9M317 surface-to-air missiles ready for launch, and also equipped with a 9S36E radar to illuminate targets and guide the missiles. up to 6 launcher vehicles per battery..

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- 9A316E tracked vehicle with loader/launcher for missiles equipped with a launcher containing four 9M317 surface-to-air missiles, in addition to four other spare missiles of the same type.,Number 1 - 12 (upon request)

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*Monitoring capabilities:

The self-propelled 9S18M1-3E Snow Drift radar is specialized in early warning tasks, aerial surveying, monitoring and tracking of various air targets at a 360° angle. It uses electronically Steered Pencil Beam beams to achieve the maximum possible accuracy in monitoring and tracking work. It also uses jumping methods. And Frequency Agility / Hopping to resist various obstruction and electronic disturbances.

The maximum range of the radar is 150 km and it can track 50 targets while providing accurate identification of 6 of them. It can detect a fighter plane flying at an altitude of 100 meters from a distance of 35 km. It also relies on coordinates received from early warning stations such as the P-18 Spoon Rest radar station.

- The 9S36E radar is responsible for illuminating targets and directing missiles. It is distinguished by its Passive Electronically Scanned Array (PESA) and can monitor a target with a radar area of 2 meters² from a distance of 120 km and 1 meter² from a distance of 100 km and at an altitude of 3 km, in addition to its ability to monitor A flying target at a height of 10 - 15 meters from a distance of 35 km. It can monitor 10 targets and engage 4 targets simultaneously.

The missile launching vehicles are equipped with an electro-optic/infrared monitoring system with a day and night imaging channel to ensure 24-hour passive monitoring and tracking in the event of exposure to high-intensity electronic jamming against radars or in the event of carrying out air ambushes against fighter aircraft, which include Complete radar silence.

* Missile capabilities:

The 9M317 missile weighs 710 kg and has a fragmentation warhead weighing 70 kg, with a Proximity Fuse to destroy the target by relying on the fragmentation detonation wave, and it has a semi-active radar seeker that relies on ground radar guidance in addition to an inertial guidance correction system. Correction Control System by taking advantage of the Proportional Navigation targeting method (a navigational law used in one form or another in most anti-air target missiles and applied to objects that are on a collision course) in order to ensure the accuracy of hitting the target.

- Maximum speed of the missile: Mach 4 (4880 km/h)

- Range of engagement against aircraft: 3:45 km

- Engagement height: 15 meters: 25 km

- Engagement range against tactical ballistic missiles: 20 km

- Engagement range against air-launched mobile missiles: 20 km

- The maximum speed for maneuvering air targets that the missile can handle: 830 meters/s

- Maximum tactical ballistic missile speed the missile can handle: 1200 m/s

- Hit rate against combat aircraft and helicopters per missile: 90 - 95%

- Hit rate against tactical ballistic missiles per missile: 60 - 70%

- Hit rate against mobile missiles per missile: 70 - 80%
* Tracking, engagement and mobility capabilities:

- Number of targets that the battery can engage simultaneously: 24 targets

The average reaction speed of the system: 11 seconds

- Speed of installing and packing the battery: 5 minutes for positioning or withdrawing from the site and 12 minutes for opening and operating the self-propelled radar.

- Vehicle speed: 65 km/h on paved roads and 45 km/h on rough roads.

- Vehicle range without the need to refuel: 500 km.

- The maximum height at which the system can operate: 3000 meters above sea level.

- The maximum wind speed within which the system can operate: 30 meters/s.

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The SC

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Feb 13, 2012
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German medium-range air defense system IRIS-T SLM
The latest systems joining the Egyptian Air Defense Forces, with 7 systems

The Egyptian Air Defense Forces contracted 7 batteries of this type

A very simple calculation: 7 batteries (one battery contains 32 missiles ready to be launched)

This means that the seven batteries will be ready to launch (224) missiles

The missile is launched with a vertical launching system through special containers not exceeding 6 meters, for launch, transport and storage (LTSC). It is carried on wheeled or tracked vehicles to work in the desert environment, and one vehicle includes 8 launchers are divided into two Quad-packs, and this compact design allows for easy shipping of vehicles by sea or air on board C-130 transport aircraft.

The missile features an engine with a Thrust vectoring feature that gives it the ability to engage at a 360-degree angle, in addition to high maneuverability, as it can perform massive maneuvers of up to 60G at a rotation rate of 60 degrees per second, which increases the difficulty of avoiding the missile. The missile relies on radar guidance for most of its path to the target. In addition to containing a satellite and inertial navigation system (GPS/INS), which can be used to set the course and modify coordinates, the missile also includes an IR thermal seeker for the final guidance stage.

The missile obtains a final infrared guidance stage in addition to inertial navigation, giving it the ability to monitor and track the target without the need for a radar tracking system at all, meaning that the missile can only obtain radar scanning data to know the location of the air target, and then close on it. In its final stage, the thermal seeker is known as lock-on after launch LOAL. This feature also gives the ability to launch and direct each missile individually and hit several different targets at the same time.

The maximum range of the missile is 40 km and it can fly up to a height of 20 km above sea level. It can reach a speed of Mach 3 (1030 m/s). The lowest range that the missile can handle and hit its target is less than 1 km, which is dead zone. This demonstrates the very high response speed, and the missile has a high ability to resist electronic and thermal interference.

It is capable of confronting various air targets, including fighters, helicopters, drones, aerial munitions, cruise missiles, and anti-radiation missiles.

The IRIS-T SLM missile system works with many radar scanning and tracking systems such as:

The Swedish Giraffe AMB 3D passive radar, which has a range of up to 120 km

In addition to the German TRML-3D passive three-dimensional radar, its range reaches 200 km, the maximum height is 20 km, and it can address 400 targets simultaneously.

In addition to the French GM200 radar, which is a three-dimensional radar with an electronic scanning array, its maximum range is 250 km for air scanning mode, and 100 km for engagement mode, and its maximum height reaches 24 km.

In addition to the Australian radar CEAFAR, the ground version GBMMR, which has an active electronic scanning array (AESA), and can monitor more than 500 targets together and has a range of up to 200 km and a height of 30 km.

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The Egyptian IRIS-T SL GBAD Contract is as following:
- 10 IRIS-T SLX Long-range GBAD system
- 7 IRIS-T SLM meduim-range GBAD system
- 6 IRIS-T SLS short-range GBAD system

The IRIS-T SLX and SLS contract has been approved by the German government.

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The acquisition of IRIS-T SL GBAD Family will improve the Egyptian air defense capabilities by having a layered and integrated air defense network through which those GBAD systems will form a layered coverage against any aerial threats within different ranges/altitudes.

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The SC

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Skyguard Amoun Anti-Aircraft System Which consists of 2/4-cell Aspide missile launchers and 2 Oerlikon GDF-005 twin 35mm guns with one Skyguard Fire Control System per battery, According to several sources Egypt has more than 35+ Skyguard Amoun Battery.

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The SC

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SPS-48 Early Warning radar with maximum range of 460 Km

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PRV-11 Radar & P-14 Russian-Made High Altitudes Early Warning Radar with maximum Range of more than 600 Km.

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The SC

INT'L MOD
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KTM Kineto Model-433 US-Made Electrostatic thermal tracking system. It has important role in detecting of small-size UAVs and Stealth Fighter Jets.

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The SC

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The Egyptian Air defense units don’t work independently, But They Work in Large Network & in IADS with AWACS E-2c planes, Fighter jets from Various types (F-16Block-52/40 - MIG-29M2 - Rafale - Mirage-2000)

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All of the pervious are linked & combined into the main command and control network system C-4I & C-5I.

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The SC

INT'L MOD
Feb 13, 2012
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S-300V4 system with new missile reaches 400 km

The range of S-300V4 anti-ballistic missile system reaches 400 kilometers. That means that Airborne early warning and control aircraft, including AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System), will now be unable to enter the 400-kilometer zone without repercussions,

  • Became the first system in the world capable of simultaneously engaging cruise missiles, aircraft and ballistic targets. It also contains a private sector radar for countering areas affected by interference.
  • Different versions of the S-300V4 missiles have a range of 400 km at Mach 7.5 or a range of 350 km at Mach 9 and can destroy maneuvering targets even at very high altitudes.

The S-300V4 long-range missile defense system carries new combat characteristics that make it capable of confronting the following threats:

- Medium Range Ballistic Missile MRBM launched from a range of up to 2,500 km.

- Short Range Ballistic Missile (SRBM) launched from a range of 300 - 1000 km.

- Tactical Ballistic Missile TBM launched from rocket launchers and other launchers, from a range of up to 300 km.

- Mobile missiles of various types.

- Fighter aircraft and air targets with high maneuverability.

- Strategic aircraft such as bombers, early warning aircraft (AWACS), electronic reconnaissance aircraft, disruption aircraft, and electronic jammers.


The most important characteristics acquired by the new system are:

- Ability to work with high immunity against various types of heavy electronic interference.

- Ability to detect stealth targets with a very low radar cross-section of up to 0.02 metres.

- Greater ability to deal with ballistic missiles.

- Expanding the range of the system’s missiles to 400 km against aircraft.

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9S19ME sector surveillance radar

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9S15M2, 9S15MT2E and 9S15MV2E all-round surveillance radars

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* The system can be linked to other types of early warning and long-range aerial survey radars specialized in monitoring stealth aircraft when needed.
 

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